The impact of surgical resection margins on outcomes for adults with head and neck osteosarcomas

Principle Investigator
John R. de Almeida
Date Approved
December 07, 2021
Objective: The aim of the study is to describe the factors that influence outcome in adults with head and neck osteosarcoma (HNO) with a specific focus on the margin status. Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of HNO between the years 1996–2021 were reviewed from the Canadian Sarcoma Research and Clinical Collaboration (CanSaRCC) Database. Baseline characteristics, pathology, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed. Univariable (UVA) and multivariable (MVA) Cox regression models were performed. 5-year locoregional control rate and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and Log-Rank test. Results: Of 50 patients with a median age of 40 years (range 16–80), 27 (54%) were male. HNO commonly involved the mandible (n = 21, 42%) followed by maxilla (n = 15, 30%). Thirteen (33.3%) had low-intermediate grade and 26 (66.6%) had high grade tumors. Three patients (6%) had negative resection margins (>5 mm), 24 (48%) had close margins (1–5 mm), 15 (30%) had positive margins (<1mm) and 7 (16%) had unknown margin status. In total, 39 (78%) received chemotherapy – 22 (44%) received neoadjuvant chemotherapy while 17 (34%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 12 (24%) patients received radiotherapy, of whom 8 (16%) had adjuvant and 3 (6%) had neo-adjuvant. Median follow-up time was 6.3 years (range 0.26–24.9). Disease recurred in 21 patients (42%), of whom 15 (30%) had local recurrence only, 4 (8%) had distant metastasis, and 2 (4%) had both local and distant recurrence. 5-year locoregional control rate and OS was 62% and 79.2% respectively. Resection margins <3 mm was associated with lower 5 years OS and locoregional control rate (LogRank p = 0.02, p = 0.01 respectively). Conclusion: Osteosarcomas of the head and neck are rare and local recurrence remains a concern. Surgical resection with negative resection margins may improve survival, and a 3 mm resection margin threshold may optimize survival. Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy should be considered in a multidisciplinary setting based on risk-features.
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